Thursday, June 20, 2024

Hierarchy of Hell – Who’s Who in the Underworld

If you believe in God, the inevitable consequence is that you must also believe in the Devil. Fond of saints and angels? There are a surprising number of their dark counterparts to acquaint yourself with. You can’t have it all your own way. The big surprise is that the story of the Devil and his minions is not entirely the work of the Christian bible – indeed, Jewish, Islamic, Gnostic and other belief systems are largely responsible for the way Christianity now depicts evil manifest, not least as the God depicted in the bible is more than capable of inflicting misery, plagues and death without the need for a defined ‘baddie’.  Even then, it was only in the late Middle Ages that a clearer view of Hell and its inhabitants was constructed.

The landscape of Hell itself dictated that the inhabitants be both plentiful and distinct. The realm itself has a capital – named by John Milton in ‘Paradise Lost’ as ‘pandemonium’. Hell is divided into seven layers (or nine, if you want to upgrade to Dante’s version), with each, essentially, a government department with a demonic head and staff dedicated to each sin. Even to get to these strata could have taken some time for the unlucky mortal – limbo being the first filter, housing unchristened babies and elder pagans; purgatory being the second, a halfway house where you could toil away smashing rocks or pushing boulders for up to seven years whilst your godliness was assessed.

In 1467, the Spanish Franciscan Catholic Bishop, Alphonso de Spina, recorded that demons could be classified in the following ways:

  • Demons of fate
  • Goblins
  • Incubi and succubi
  • Wandering groups or armies of demons
  • Familiars
  • Drudes
  • Cambions and other demons are born from the union of a demon with a human being.
  • Liar and mischievous demons
  • Demons that attack the saints
  • Demons that try to induce old women to attend Witches’ Sabbats

Lucifer 15th century French

This may seem excessive, but remember, heaven’s angels are also strictly ordered: Seraphim; Cherubim; Thrones; Dominions; Virtues; Powers; Principalities; Archangels and Angels. Job seeking and promotions were clearly rigorous affairs.

A hundred years later in his ‘Laterne of Light’, Peter Binsfield, a German bishop, honed the existing vague categories and aligned them to the seven deadly sins. The seven princes of Hell looked like this:

  • Lucifer: pride
  • Mammon: greed
  • Asmodeus: lust
  • Leviathan: envy
  • Beelzebub: gluttony
  • Amon or Satan: wrath
  • Belphegor: sloth

The Jewish Talmud suggests that there are 7,405,926 hosts of evil. With uncanny precision, this was upgraded by the 16th Century Swiss theologian, Martinus Barrhaus to 2,665,866,746,664. Johannes Wierus, recounted the evidence as he saw it and proclaimed that when Lucifer fell from Heaven, he took 2400 evil angels with him; when they arrived at Hell, there were eleven princes of Hell, each commanding 6,660,000 demons. The Cistercian abbot, Richalmus, hedged his bets and claimed there were at least as many demons as grains of sand. Calculators are available in the foyer.

Dictionnaire-Infernal-Collin-de-Plancy

‘Dictionnaire Infernal’ “Infernal Dictionary”) was first published in France in 1818. Written and compiled by occultist and demonologist Jacques Auguste Simon Collin de Plancy, it was reprinted several times before its most recent incarnation in 1863 in an edition that contained 69 illustrations by surrealist-inclined artist Louis Le Breton.

Aamon

A Marquis of Hell who governs forty infernal legions and is associated with the sin of wrath and violence. Said to have an owl, sparrow or hawk’s head which vomits fire, and a lion or wolf’s forequarters, including legs, as well as a worm or snake’s tail. He knows all past and future events and is known to lead mortals to fall in love. A brother of Amaymon, Aamon shares a family trait of poisonous breath and is considered one of the mightiest princes of Hell.

Abaddon (The Destroyer)

His early career as the angel sent to collect the earth which was used to create Adam, he later took up the role of a prince of the bottomless pit. His name translates as ‘doom’ in Hebrew and ‘destroyer’ in Greek, and is namechecked in the Book of Revelation in the New Testament, describing him as the king of an army of locusts ‘resembling horses with crowned human faces, women’s hair, lions’ teeth, wings, iron breast-plates, and a tail with a scorpion’s stinger that torments for five months anyone who does not have the seal of God on their foreheads’. With locust-like characteristics in his demon form, he is a gigantic, muscular figure in human form, with black eyes, wings and large, sharp teeth. 

Appearances in popular culture:

  • Abaddon (as Apollyon) appears in Act 2 of the opera ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’ by Ralph Vaughan Williams.
  • In the episode “Alice” of ‘ Star Trek: Voyager’, Abaddon is the proprietor of “Abaddon’s Repository of Lost Treasures”
  • In John Bunyan’s allegory ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’, Abaddon (as Apollyon) appears as the “foul fiend” who assaulted Christian on his pilgrimage through the Valley of Humiliation. He rules over the city of Destruction and attacks Christian when he refuses to return.
  • Anthony Bray of the English heavy metal band Venom used Abaddon as his stage name
  • Abaddon appears as the primary antagonist in the horror film ‘The Heretics’ (2017).

Abaddon

Adrammelech (King of Fire)

Great minister of Beelzebub’s Order of the Fly. Adramelech became the President of the Senate of the Demons and a Great
Minister of Beelzebub’s Order of the Fly. He is also the Chancellor of Hell and supervisor of Satan’s wardrobe and livery and is patron of hypocrisy. Being generally depicted with a human torso and head, and the rest of the body of a mule (or sometimes as a peacock).

Adramelech (with one ‘m’) features in Graham Masterton‘s 1978 horror novel ‘The Devils of D Day’.

Adrammelech

Agares

Described as a duke “under the powers of the east,” an “old man, riding upon a crocodile, and carrying a hawke on his fist,” who is a master of languages, stops and retrieves runaway persons, causes earthquakes, and grants noble titles.

Amaymon

Brother of the previously mentioned Aamon, Amaymon is one of the kings of The South and is known to be particularly troublesome to exorcists, with them having to remove any headwear, lest he deceive them.

Andras

A grand marquis of Hell commanding thirty legions, Andras is a hunter of men and is a respected leader in Hell’s army. He is considered so ferocious that sorcerers are advised not to invoke him without strong magical protection. He has a raven’s head and rides a wolf into battle.

Asmodeus 

Asmodeus takes charge of the casinos of Hell, specialising in all things related to greed and illicit pleasure. Sporting three heads (bull, ram and human) and the feet of a rooster, he sits astride a dragon and holds a lance and banner. He leads mortals to squander their wealth of frippery and tempts them into wildly inappropriate relationships. One of the nine kings of Hell, Asmodeus appears in human form as a well-dressed dandy or smartly-dressed woman. He is credited with inventing dancing, music and the dramatic arts. As well as commanding seventy-two legions of demons, he also runs Hell’s casinos. When in the earthly realm, he is known to incite frivolity and sin in convents and monasteries.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • In the 1970 film, In ‘Equinox’, Asmodeus is the controller of various demons and spirits.
  • Asmodeus is the evil entity in ‘Paranormal Activity: Next of Kin’ (2021)
  • In 2023’s ‘The Pope’s Exorcist’, Asmodeus is responsible for one of the possessions.

equinox-film-1970

  • Asmodeus is the villain in the 1979 comic-fantasy novel ‘And the Devil Will Drag You Under’ by Jack L. Chalker.
  • In Robert A. Heinlein‘s novel ‘Job: A Comedy of Justice’, Alex and Margrethe are granted their request to spend eternity together operating a small-town diner and soda fountain which they purchased from “Mr. & Mrs. A.S. Modeus”.
  • In the Yu-Gi-Oh Trading Card Game, there is a Monster Card named Darklord Asmodeus.
  • The demon Azmodan, the Lord of Sin, is one of the Lesser Evils from the ‘Diablo’ series of games, most notably appearing as a major boss in Diablo III.
  • In ‘Demon Keeper’ (1993), Asmodeus is the demon unwittingly conjured up by psychic charlatan Remy Grilland (played by Edward Albert).

Astaroth (Treasurer of Hell)

Riding around (backwards) on a dragon and carrying a serpent-like staff, Astaroth is a mentor to newer demons joining the ranks. As a Great Duke of Hell, he sits alongside Lucifer and Beelzebub as part of the infernal trinity. He favours August as a time to drive mortals to be overcome by apathy and laziness.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • Astaroth appeared in the ‘Batman: The Brave and the Bold’ episode ‘Trials of the Demon’, voiced by Tony Todd.
  • Astaroth is the main antagonist and recurring boss character in the ‘Ghosts ‘n Goblins’ franchise
  • Astaroth has made several appearances in the comic book series ‘Hellboy’ by Mike Mignola
  • Astaroth is a demon in the manga and anime, ‘Ao No Exorcist’, and is a demon of rot

astaroth

Azazel

Referenced in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, Azazel was one of the first angels to fall from Heaven and lists among his achievements, leading men to create and take up weapons and women to apply make-up. Bit sexist. His appearance is somewhat startling, with seven serpent-like heads, fourteen faces and twelve wings. The sacrifice of two goats in the Bible, sent carrying Man’s sins to the wilderness to reside with Azazel, is the source of the phrase ‘scapegoat’.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • Azazel is the main character in a series of short stories written by Isaac Asimov.
  • The ‘X-Men’ comic books feature a mutant based on the legendary demon, created by writer Chuck Austen.
  • Featured in the film ‘Fallen’ with Denzel Washington, as a body-switching demon.
  • In the TV series ‘Supernatural’, a demon named Azazel is the main antagonist in seasons one and two
  • He is one of the end bosses in Namco’s video game, ‘Tekken 6’.
  • The TV series Hex features a fallen angel called Azazeal (played by Michael Fassbender) as one of its primary antagonists.

azazel

Baal or Bael

Baal is the demon most heavily related to idleness. Situated in Eastern Hell, he has the arms of a spider and three heads – human, cat and toad. He is a high-ranking demon, the second chief of staff in all of Hell ruling over sixty-six legions.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • In the film ‘The Rite’ (2011), Father Lucas (Anthony Hopkins) is revealed to be possessed by the demon Baal. It is alluded to that this is the case throughout the film as cats and frogs are often present around Father Lucas’ home.
  • In the film 1990 ‘Hardware’, the MARK-13 robot antagonist has the letters B.A.A.L. (Bioelectronic Artificially intelligent Autoindependent Lifeform) at the beginning of its serial number.
  • In The Marvel Universe, Baal appears in the original ‘Wolverine’ comic book series, issues #11-16, collectively called The Gehenna Stone Affair.’
  • The fifth episode of ‘American Horror Stories’ was titled ‘Ba’al,’ and the demon was portrayed by Dane DiLiegro
  • In the ‘Ash vs Evil Dead’ TV series, Baal is depicted as a humanoid demon who is able to drive people insane and manipulate them like puppets, also he’s able to disguise himself by skinning a human and wearing their skin.
  • The protagonist in the video games ‘Baldur’s Gate’ 1 and 2 is identified as a Child of ‘Bhaal,’ a deity also known as the ‘God of Murder’.
  • The death metal band Morbid Angel has a track titled ‘Blades for Baal’ on their 2011 album ‘Illud Divinum Insanus’

baal

Baal-Berith

Patron devil of disobedience, Baal-Berith is master of several domains, being Hell’s minister of foreign affairs, chief secretary and keeper of the infernal archives. Anyone making a pact with the Devil will have it signed off by Baal-Berith. Above the surface, he is known to encourage blasphemy, quarrels and even murder. He is also said to be the entity that took possession of Sister Madeleine at Aix-en-Provence and told her the names of other devils.

baalberith

Beelzebub

Chief of staff and second only to Lucifer in the rankings, even attempting coups in Hell. Presiding over the Order of the Fly (leading to him often referred to as Lord of the Flies), Beelzebub often takes the form of a fly and is notorious for inspiring heresy and tempting humans with sin, envy and pride. Witch trials often attempted to coerce those under suspicion to confess to worshipping Beelzebub. One of the seven Princes of Hell, he is associated with gluttony and envy.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • In ‘Bohemian Rhapsody’, a song by the British rock band Queen, the opera section (3:03–4:07), depicting the narrator’s descent into hell, concludes with a full choral treatment of the lyric “Beelzebub has a devil put aside for me!”.
  • Beelzebub or “The Lord of the Flies” was a demonic figure depicted as a sow’s head planted on a stick sharpened at two ends, who speaks to the Jesus figure, Simon, in William Golding’s novel ‘Lord of the Flies’.
  • Beelzebub is the Devil’s representative on Earth in both the novel and TV series of Terry Pratchett’s ‘Good Omens’.

beelzebub

Behemoth (Devil’s Cupbearer)

Behemoth is said to have been created by God, alongside Leviathan, respectively the land and sea-based gargantuan which served essentially as God’s pets. Appearing, variously, as a crocodile, elephant, whale or hippo, this demon, obviously, lent his name to describing anything huge. Employed as the nightwatchman of Hell, he also serves as the Devil’s cook, and is patron of despair and gluttony.  ‘Dictionnaire Infernal’ depicts Behemoth as a round-bellied humanoid elephant, overseeing banquets and regaling audiences with his excellent singing voice.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • Behemoth appears in John Adam’s opera, ‘Nixon in China’.
  • Behemoth is the name of a Polish black metal band, as well as a track by Seattle rock band, Tad.

Behemoth

Beleth

Responsible for eighty-five legions of demons, he announces his appearance with great fanfares of trumpets whilst riding upon a pale horse. He often appears as a cat-like creature and features alongside the demons Sitri and Yomyael, who held dominion over parts of Europe and Asia.

In popular culture:

  • Beleth was killed by Hellboy in the comic series of the same name.

beleth

Belial (Prince of Arrogance and Deceit)

Derived from the Hebrew for ‘worthless’, Known to be a great speaker, he is depicted as being particularly vicious and vocal against the work of God. Belial is said to already have been in Hell when Lucifer fell and tempted mortals into acts of rebellion and disloyalty. He is head of 50 legions of demons and is associated with lies and guilt, though sex features prominently too. He appears as a tall, well-presented gentleman. The Satanic Bible names Belial as one of the Four Crown Princes of the Underworld.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • The classic 1922 film ‘Nosferatu’ says that the titular vampire originated from “Belial’s seed,” implying Belial’s hand in the creation of vampires.
  • Belial possessed the titular character in the movie ‘The Exorcism of Emily Rose’ (2005)
  • Belial is the name given to the deformed Siamese twin brother of Duane Bradley in the exploitation film ‘Basket Case’ (1982) and its sequels, ‘Basket Case 2’ (1990) and ‘Basket Case 3: The Progeny’ (1993)
  • In the 2002 film ‘BloodRayne’, based on the eponymous video.
  • The 2018 Canadian film ‘Beyond Hell’, features Belial as the main monster.

belial

Belphegor

One of the seven princes of Hell, who helps people make discoveries and leads inventors astray. He seduces people by suggesting to them ingenious inventions that will make them rich. According to some 16th-century demonologists, his power is stronger in April. Often appearing as an attractive young woman, he spends his time outside of Hell in Paris, leading men to wicked acts and imbuing those he meets with laziness.

In popular culture:

  • Belphegor appears as a young human male in the first episode of the final season of the TV show ‘Supernatural’ played by Alexander Calvert.
  • Belphagur is an extreme death metal band from Austria, previously known as Betrayer.

Belphegor

Buer

Buer is a spirit that appears in the 16th-century grimoire ‘Pseudomonarchia Daemonum’ and its derivatives, where he is described as a president or chairman of Hell, leading fifty legions of demons. Louis Le Breton created an illustration of Buer, later engraved by M. Jarrault, depicting the demon as having the head of a lion and five goat legs surrounding his body to walk in every direction. His distinctive appearance aligns him with Sagittarius, the centaur, and Buer is said to have originally been a cherubim, one of the army of angels responsible for positioning stars in their relevant constellations. This illustration has been featured on several albums including Morbid Angel’s ‘Blessed Are the Sick’ LP, Coil’s ‘Wrong Eye’ / ‘Scope’ single, Cloven Hoof’s 2008 album ‘The Definitive Part One’, a 1981 Black Sabbath bootleg LP entitled ‘Buer Album’, and the EP ‘Evoco Bestias’ by the Norwegian avant-garde metal group Fleurety.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • Buer appears in the ‘Hellblazer’ comic book as one of the demons of Hell who oppose the lead character John Constantine.
  • Buer is portrayed in a Polish fantasy movie ‘Dzieje Mistrza Twardowskiego’ (The Story of Master Twardowski) about the famous Polish necromancer Pan Twardowski, as a president of Trade Collegium of Hell… or Devoncourt.

buer

Carnivean

Invoked during witches’ rituals, he is the patron devil of lewdness, lasciviousness and obscenity.

Carreau

The demon employed to break the resolve of even the most determined mortal, leading them to make merciless decisions. Said to have possessed the body of Sister Seraphica of Loudon.

Crocell

Speaking in a dark and mysterious way, Crocell leads forty-eight legions of demons and when summoned by humans can teach mathematics and geometry. Can control the sound and temperature of water at will, freezing boiling water instantly. She appears as an angel with long flowing blonde hair and a blue dress, with large blue wings.

Dabog

A demonic lord, Dabog is described as looking like a lame shepherd with a long white beard. He is associated with precious gems and metals, particularly bronze. On Earth, he is able to take the form of a wolf.

Dagon

Often depicted as a fish or fish/human hybrid, Dagon is the pantry chef and breadmaker of Hell and is the God of the Philistines. Originally one of God’s archangels,  since his fall he became one of the judges of the dead. Adopted by H.P. Lovecraft in his tales.

Dantalion

Dantalion (or Dantalian) is a powerful Great Duke of Hell, with thirty-six legions of demons under his command; he is the 71st of 72 spirits of Solomon. He teaches all arts and sciences, and also declares the secret counsel of anyone, given that he knows the thoughts of all people and can change them at his will, sometimes through hallucinations. He can also cause love and show the similitude of any person, show the same by means of a vision, and let them be in any part of the world they will. This demon is known to have many different faces, male and female, that speak through one mouth

Dommiel

The opposite side of the coin to St Peter, Dommiel is the Gatekeeper of Hell and responsible for terror and trembling

Dumah

The angel of the silence of death, his name deriving from the Aramaic word for ‘silence’. Dumah is one of the seven princes of Hell, allegedly leading tens of thousands of angels of destruction. Dumah has one thousand eyes and carries a flaming sword.

Foras

A senator of Hell and teacher of maths and logic in the realms of eternal fire, he is able to grant long life and invisibility, as well as reveal the location of lost objects and treasure. Appearing as an old man, he is in charge of Lucifer’s stables.forcas

Furculor

The Duke of Water in charge of thirty legions within the hierarchy, Furculor harboured thoughts of returning to heaven, though when finding out (after 1000 years) that this had been a false promise given to him, he spent his days drowning men and sinking ships. Appearing as a winged being, he is particularly volatile and if summoned must be commanded not to attack.

Gaap

Governor of Southern Hell, in charge of sixty-six legions, he operates under the leadership of Amaymon. Gaap can lead men to become insane and whip up feverish emotions. Human-like, apart from massive bat wings, he will only speak the truth if bound inside a magic triangle.

gaap

Gressil

The mirror of Saint Bernard, Gressil tempts mortals into acts of impurity and sloth. Prone to acts of lechery.

Hauras

One of Hell’s leaders, he is able to predict the future and accurately determine the true facts of past events. He can appear as either a leopard or as a grotesque man with flaming eyes. Ruling over thirty-six legions, he can be commanded by sorcerers to kill anyone they desire by means of fire.

Hornblas

Demon of musical discord, his tuneless blasts summon the denizens of Hell together.

Legion

‘Legion’ is a group of demons referred to in the New Testament, in an incident in which Jesus performs an exorcism and the possessed man declares, “My name is Legion, for we are many.”

Appearances in popular culture:

  • ‘My Name is Legion’ is a 2004 novel by A. N. Wilson.
  • Randall Flagg, the villain in Stephen King’s ‘The Stand’, refers to himself as Legion
  • It is quoted in William Peter Blatty’s novel, ‘The Exorcist’ and is also the title for the book’s sequel
  • In the 1990 film ‘The Exorcist III’, Legion is referenced by the Gemini Killer
  • Legion is mentioned in the 2005 film ‘The Exorcism of Emily Rose’ when one of the demons says “I was with Legion”.
  • Legion is the name of Charles Xavier’s son in the ‘X-Men’ comics.

Leraje

A mighty Great Marquis of Hell who has thirty legions of demons under his power. He causes great battles and disputes and makes gangrene wounds caused by arrows. He is depicted as a gallant and handsome archer clad in green, carrying a bow and quiver.

Leraje

Leviathan

As his name suggests, responsible for the infernal navy and on stand-by to devour all the unsaved on Judgement Day. Created on the fifth day of creation, as was her land-based male counterpart Behemoth. Described as being 300 miles long and able to boil water with her poisoned breath. In Anton LaVey’s ‘The Satanic Bible’ (1969), Leviathan represents the element of Water and the direction of the West, listing it as one of the Four Crown Princes of Hell.

Appearances in popular culture:

      • In ‘Paradise Lost’, Milton uses the term Leviathan to describe the size and power of Satan, the ruler of many kingdoms.
      • George Oppen’s seminal 1962 poem ‘Leviathan’ addresses the leviathan of the all-consuming force of mankind’s own actions, which Oppen felt posed a very real threat to human survival.
      • In the gothic soap opera ‘Dark Shadows’, the Leviathans are an ancient race of beings who ruled the Earth before mankind came into existence.
      • Leviathan’ is a 1989 science-fiction horror film
      • In the ‘Hellraiser’ series by Clive Barker, the deity that rules Hell is named Leviathan. However, this being takes the form of a gigantic lozenge, rotating in the air above its realm, and pertains in no other way to a sea monster.

h8

Mammon (Demon of Averice and Greed)

Mammon is Hell’s ambassador to England and is ranked amongst the most influential of all the princes of Hell. Bent double from the speed of his fall from grace, he spends his days staring at the ground, tempting men into acts of jealousy for material goods.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • In John Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’, Mammon is a fallen angel, described as being “more interested in heaven’s pavements,” than the leader. He tells the other fallen angels to be content in Hell.
  • The Phantom of the Opera worships Mammon in Frederick Forsyth’sThe Phantom of Manhattan’.
  • In ‘The Alchemist’ by Ben Jonson (1610), Sir Epicure Mammon is a man obsessed with material wealth.
  • In the film ‘Constantine’ (2005) – Mammon is the son of Lucifer/Satan himself
  • Mammon’ is a 2014 TV mini-series from Norway.
  • Mozilla Firefox – In The Book of Mozilla easter egg found on the Mozilla Firefox browser, the term Mammon is used to refer metaphorically to Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • In ‘The Simpsons’, Monty Burns lives on the corner of Mammon Street.

Misroch (or Nisroch) (Lucifer’s cook)

With the head of an eagle, Misroch now serves the Devil fruit he has cursed from the Tree of Immortality. Closely associated with Belphegor.

mis

Moloch (Chief of Hell’s Army)

“And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Moloch”. “Prince of the Land of Tears”, Moloch is a frightful sight, covered in the blood of murdered children and drenched in the tears of their grieving mothers. Statues of Moloch featured seven compartments in which newborn babies could be placed as a sacrifice. The bronze statue was then heated up and the infants burned alive. Moloch is anxious to start immediate warfare against God.

Appearances in popular culture:

  • In Allen Ginsberg’s 1955 poem ‘Howl’, Moloch is used as a metaphor for the American city, thus aligning McCarthy-era America with the demon.
  • In Robert A. Heinlein’s novel ‘Job: A Comedy of Justice’, the main characters join a church pastored by “Reverend Doctor M. O. Loch.”
  • Alan Moore’s ‘Watchmen’ features a retired underworld crime boss who once adopted the name Moloch the Mystic (real name Edgar William Jacobi)
  • In Fritz Lang’s silent film ‘Metropolis’ (1927), Moloch is a vision of a demonic machine.

moloch

Paimon

Depicted as a camel-riding young woman or effeminate man, Paimon is utterly loyal to Lucifer and as a reward controls over 200 legions. Regularly invoked in rites and ceremonies, Paimon knows all Earthly secrets…for a price. He announces his appearance with a great roar and is preceded by demons disguised as humans playing musical instruments.

Purson

A lion-faced man riding a bear, Purson is able to reveal all secrets. He is ranked as a king and the lieutenant general of the legions of Hell, with twenty-two legions below him. Carrying a viper, Purson is heralded by fanfares of trumpets.

Rimmon

Although his name derives from the Hebrew for the innocent pomegranate, he is an ambassador to Russia and is the only doctor in Hell. Largely involved in the creation of storms and thunder.

Rosier (Demon of Seduction)

A prince of the demonic Order of Dominations, Rosier leads humans into being seduced against their will and is linked with tainted love, putting frothy, foolish words on the lips of smitten lovers. Appearing as a handsome man or beautiful woman, Rosier causes such feelings of adoration in mortals that they shun God.

Sammael (Devil of Death)

Accused by some of being the serpent in the Garden of Eden, Sammael crosses over into the same character as Lucifer in some texts. Demon of the arts. Commanding four hundred forty-four servitors, he also has under his service all the spirits
of America and Europe. Appearing as a red-haired man, he is so attractive that women find him irresistible.

sammael

Satan (Vice President of Hell, Demon of Anger, Grand General of the Infernal Spirits, Lord of Fire, Lord of Hell, Lord of the Underworld, Prince of Deluders etc)

The role of Satan is very confused, largely as his name has become so interchangeable with ‘The Devil’, ‘Beelzebub’ and many others.  Satan is a demon of destruction, appearing throughout the Old Testament, from the Garden of Eden to annoying Jesus in the desert. Able to tempt either man or woman into committing any sin. Assuming such a high rank in Heaven that he sported twelve wings, he finally met his match in a battle against the angel, Uriel.

Succor

Tempting Man with thoughts of lust, this demon watches over Hell’s gates and is also in charge of Hell’s harem.

Verrier

The demon of disobedience, he is able to cause men’s necks to become stiff, preventing them from bowing.

Vine

Both an earl and king of Hell, Vine commands thirty-six legions and appears as a lion riding a black horse. He is able to destroy and construct buildings with ease, as well as control storms at sea. He can detect witches and uncover secrets, past, present and future.

Xaphan

Known for causing chaos, Xaphan attempted to raise troops into setting Heaven on fire, a plot that was rumbled leading to eternal damnation, fuelling the fires of Hell with a set of bellows.

Zagan

A king and president of Hell, Zagan leads 33 legions of demons. He can turn blood into oil or wine (and vice-versa) and turn base metals into coins. He has the power to make fools into wise men and leads men into acts of deceit.

During the 16th century, it was believed that each demon had more strength to accomplish his mission during a special month of the year. In this way, he and his assistants’ powers would work better during that month.

  • Belial in January
  • Leviathan in February
  • Satan in March
  • Belphegor in April
  • Lucifer in May
  • Berith in June
  • Beelzebub in July
  • Astaroth in August
  • Thammuz in September
  • Baal in October
  • Asmodai in November
  • Moloch in December

Daz Lawrence

The Last Judgment (1306) by Giotto di Bondone

A version of this article originally appeared in Horrorpedia.

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